Frequently Asked Questions

About Sustainable Seafood

Why do we need sustainable seafood?

Today, 80 percent of the world's marine populations are fully fished, over-exploited, depleted, or recovering from depletion. With seafood growing in demand, it’s critical that sustainable fishing practices are followed if wild-caught seafood is going to be available in the future and if farmed seafood is going to be able to supplement wild fish supplies. Whole Foods Market is committed to working with organizations such as the Marine Stewardship Council and Monterey Bay Aquarium to advance the market for sustainable seafood.

What makes Whole Foods Market’s seafood different from other seafood?

Whole Foods Market works harder than any other retailer to source seafood from responsibly managed fish farms and abundant, well-managed wild-capture fisheries. This means that we seek fisheries that keep fish populations abundant, rather allowing overfishing to occur. It also means that in the process of fishing or farming, impacts on the ecosystem are minimized. In contrast, other seafood may not be sourced from farms or fisheries taking these kinds of measures. We’re committed to working towards sourcing all of our seafood from well-managed farms and fisheries.

Does sustainable seafood taste any different?

This may depend upon the individual fish. For instance, MSC-certified sustainable wild Alaska salmon has a much different flavor profile than farm-raised salmon.

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) Certification

How does a fishery become MSC-certified?

The MSC program is voluntary and any fishery can try to become certified, but that doesn’t mean that they’ll pass. The MSC standards and process are strict and rigorous. To assess if a fishery can meet the MSC standards, a team of experts from an independent, third-party certification agency evaluates the fishery to see if the fish population targeted is maintained at healthy levels, the ecosystem is intact, and that the fishery management system is effective.

How long does MSC certification last?

The certification lasts five years with an annual audit by the certifier to ensure that the fishery continues to meet certification requirements.

Can farmed fish qualify for certification?

The MSC program was developed for marine capture fisheries, and the MSC has decided not to cover aquaculture certification.

Wild Species Ranking Program

Who is Whole Foods Market’s partnering organization, Monterey Bay Aquarium (MBA)?

Monterey Bay Aquarium (MBA) is one of the leading non-governmental, non-profit seafood sustainability organizations and our honored partner. MBA is ranked the top aquarium in the U.S. With their Seafood Watch program, pocket guides and iPhone app they work to transform the seafood market in ways that support sustainable fishery practices and fish-farming operations.

Why is Whole Foods Market only partnering with Monterey Bay Aquarium (MBA) and not other organizations?

We selected MBA because they are highly respected for the strength of their science-based seafood program. They are unique for their transparent ranking method and post their fishery evaluations online so that anyone can see them.

Why hasn’t Whole Foods Market developed its own standards for wild-caught seafood, like you have for farmed fish?

Our customers are eager to know, without delay, if the wild-caught seafood we sell comes from sustainable fisheries. Given the large number of wild-caught species that we offer (and the wide range of fisheries from which the species are sourced), rather than creating our own standards we believe partnering with organizations (Marine Stewardship Council and Monterey Bay Aquarium) who already have well-established, great systems for evaluating wild capture fisheries, is the most efficient and robust approach.

Why doesn’t Whole Foods Market also use Monterey Bay Aquarium’s (MBA) color rankings for farmed seafood in the seafood departments?

We have already developed industry-leading standards for aquaculture (fish farming) with strict requirements for each farm that supplies Whole Foods Market. Our partner, MBA, has evaluated general practices in fish farming, but do not evaluate individual farms and thus cannot fulfill our unique needs for ranking farmed seafood.

Why don’t Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) products carry a color ranking?

The MSC has the most in depth and strict process for evaluating a fishery to determine if it's sustainable. Our partner, The Monterey Bay Aquarium (MBA) does not need to replicate this process by conducting their own evaluations of all MSC-certified fisheries. This new color ranking program provides sustainability information for fisheries not yet certified by the MSC. To help customers make the best choices, it is important for all seafood from MSC-certified fisheries to display the MSC logo.

Why are green-ranked fisheries so important?

Not only do they help ensure a good supply of seafood going forward, but green-ranked fisheries are important because they demonstrate that fish populations can be healthy and that fisheries can be sustainably managed. By sourcing from green-ranked fisheries, we support the people and procurement systems involved in sustainable seafood.


What is the benefit of farmed seafood at Whole Foods Market?

The farmed seafood at Whole Foods Market not only provides a consistent, high quality, year-round supply of healthy and delicious protein, it is also raised by farmers working hard to become the leaders in environmentally responsible aquaculture.

How did we create our Aquaculture (farmed seafood) standards?

For two full years, we conducted extensive research on the aquaculture industry, including review of all the best available science, consultation with the top environmental organizations, and visits to the most innovative farms worldwide to learn and consult with the farmers. We analyzed the issues associated with farmed seafood production in great depth, including the use of marine resources in feed, impacts on predator populations and risks associated with escaped fish, pollution, and disease. From there, we used all this research and stakeholder input to create standards that only the very best farms can meet.

How do we know that the standards are being met?

Our supplier partners must pass annual independent third-party audits to ensure that our standards are being met. Only farms that pass their annual audits may sell their farmed seafood to Whole Foods Market.

Why sell farmed salmon when we’ve heard about problems with salmon farms?

Instead of ignoring the problems in the industry, we decided that we would work to create an incentive for improvement by developing an extensive set of strict standards for farmed salmon production and by providing a market for producers who work hard to meet them. All of our farmed salmon must meet our Quality Standards and carry the “Responsibly Farmed” logo in order to be sold in our stores.

What does the Responsibly Farmed™ logo stand for?

The Whole Foods Market® “Responsibly Farmed” logo means that the product meets our strict Whole Foods Market Quality Standards for finfish and shrimp. No other grocery store or fish market has standards like ours for keeping farmed seafood healthy and for protecting the environment. The logo also means that the product has been third-party verified to ensure our standards are being met.

Is our farm-raised seafood organic?

In our U.S. stores we have chosen not to sell “organic” farmed fish until the United States establishes organic standards for aquaculture and there is a “USDA Organic” label in place for organic farmed fish. This is our way of maintaining the integrity of the organic label. We’ve contributed to the policy-setting process for national organic standards for farm-raised seafood in an effort to encourage the strongest organic standards possible.

Mercury in Seafood

What do I need to know about mercury in fish?

For wild-caught seafood, larger and longer-living types are more prone to accumulating mercury. Most farmed fish are low in mercury. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides advice regarding mercury in seafood, especially for pregnant women and young children. Here’s more info about mercury in seafood.

Whole Foods Market Seafood Standards

It takes a lot to get all that fresh, beautiful seafood into our seafood department. We have industry-leading standards for wild-caught seafood and farm-raised seafood.